The Urban Conservation And Heritage Tourism Tourism Essay

Urban preservation is critical for metropolis regeneration. Historic metropolis demands to be conserved before it is being promoted to the populace as touristry trade good. This chapter is chiefly discuses on theoretical construct of urban preservation and heritage touristry. The province authorities scheme for urban preservation of Johor Bahru metropolis Centre embedded in the Comprehensive Development Plan will be reviewed.

2.2 Scholarly Review

In 1990s, many of the European and North American metropoliss faced the job of de-industrialization. In order to last from the economic diminution in the industrial sector, the governments proposed the thought of tourism-related regeneration schemes to regenerate the metropoliss and stimulate economic system growing of the state. As a effect, the term “ urban touristry ” ( Haywood, 1992 ; Law, 1994, 1995 ; Page, 1995 ; Van den Berg et Al, 1995, Hinch, 1996, Caffyn and Lutz, 1999 ) and “ heritage touristry ” ( Ashworth, 1992 ; Ashworth and Larkham, 1994 ; Hall, 1994 ; Swarbrooke, 1994 ; Boniface and Fowler, 1993 ; Caffyn and Lutz, 1999 ) were introduced and lend to the development of variegation of universe touristry sector. Over twelvemonth of development in metropoliss, touristry sector is said to be an alternate for making occupations and exciting income growing ( Toman, 1997 ) . Anna and Ivana ( 2010 ) , heritage touristry is one of the most suited signifiers of touristry for sustainable economic and societal development particularly in distant part. Development of touristry sector lead to new occupations chances, development of other tourism-based sector will finally lend to the economic system growing and cut down socio-economy jobs.

Arouse of heritage preservation consciousness is non entirely due to economic alterations in the state but it is besides due to the rapid development that lead to the disappearing of the typical heritage ( Henderson, 2000 ) . Globalization and metropolitan transmutations affects the bing urban signifier in which influenced the preservation be aftering result in Istanbul ( Kocabas, 2006 ) . Stephen and Victor ( 2006 ) , heritage and cultural preservation is critical in the advancement of state urbanisation and modernisation as rapid soaking up of other societies experience may finally impact ain positive cultural traditions. Though globalisation is of import in state development, yet, literature shown that conserving heritage and cultural involvements of a state is every bit of import for maintain individuality of state and besides contribute to the national economic system growing.

Henderson ( 2000 ) , preservation program should implant with several aims which are retain and Restoration of the architectural significance, better and heighten the physical individualities of the preservation country, retain and heighten the ethnic-based activities while consolidating new activities and engagement of public and private sectors in the preservation undertakings.

Millar ( 1989 ) described historical territory as a topographic point for visitants to appreciate the yesteryear. Authenticity means traditional civilization beginning ( Chhabra et al, 2003 ) . Higher genuineness indicates higher grade of truth of a peculiar civilization. Authenticity used to be discussed in cultural touristry. Chhabra et Al ( 2003 ) explained cultural production is diversion and show of civilization at the cultural built environment, historical site. Authenticity is of import property of heritage touristry ( Wait, 2000 ) . However, Caffyn and Lutz ( 1999 ) argued that heritage attractive force or history may sometimes be superficial as it is non ever reflect the yesteryear. Halewood and Hannam ( 2001 ) criticized that commercialisation has been used for transforming historical scenes into superficial objects for the intent of touristry. Nevertheless, Lowenthal ( 1990 ) claimed that genuineness in cultural touristry should non depend entirely on the truth of re-creation of past history yet it is subjective to single whereby it should at least make the nostalgic feelings. Caffyn and Lutz ( 1999 ) complemented to Lowenthal, complete genuineness is non ever attractive force for touristry. Hashimoto ( 1999 ) added, visitants may demand for certain grade of acquaintance to bask particular experience instead than to the full refering about genuineness. However, it is ever true that heritage touristry stand on the land of genuineness. It needs non to be complete genuineness yet at least perceptual experiences towards the sites fetch the original heritage value that can at least represent cultural roots of the vicinity.

Jacobs ( 1999 ) said character of a street reflects the image of a metropolis and more than frequently great metropoliss and topographic points are identified by the chief street. Ever since yesteryear, topographic points where human civilisation started was well-known to the universe as it fetch the civilization and individuality of the nationhood. In other words, streets where community settled, undergone the socio-economy activities and fetched the development of the topographic point are of import heritage relics. These streets were named as traditional street. Traditional streets shared the same characteristics whereby the streets were lined by rows of shophouses of Pre-World War II with a five-foot public paseo at the front part of the shophouse. Another important characteristic that best illustrated by the traditional streets is the street market at the prosaic manner. There are few well-known traditional streets that illustrated the characteristics such as Jalan Petaling, Jalan Masjid India and Jalan Tunku Abdul Rahman located in Kuala Lumpur, Memory Lane and Gerbang Malam located in Ipoh metropolis Centre, Jonker Walk ( Jalan Hang Jebat ) located in Malacca metropolis Centre and Little Penang Street Market located at Penang Upper Road. As harmonizing to Wiener ( 1980 ) , metropoliss come alive with festivals in the streets and Parkss. Such sort of street market activities become an attractive force for both local and foreign and hike up street lives in the vicinity in which finally turn to a important individuality and attractive force.

Besides, traditional streets in Malaysia create a sense of topographic point in which enable tourers to see the existent and socio-economy of the local. Relph ( 1976 ) explained sense of topographic point is associated with the feelings and perceptual experiences of oneself through experience of a topographic point. Strong sense of topographic point can be in bend changed to go individuality or symbol of a vicinity. Harmonizing to Shuhana and Ahmad Bashri ( 2002 ) , traditional streets in Malaysia serve different map from as those in western metropoliss. Nature of traditional streets in Malaysia host peddling activities, economic functional of the street has been developed historically in the local context in which made it a major scene in Malayan metropoliss. In other words, strong sense of topographic point in the traditional streets creates greater chance for familiarisation of the local civilization.

Local engagement is of import in accomplishing aims of state policy. Sautter and Leisen ( 1999 ) , it is indispensable to include part of all local stakeholders in planning policy in order to increase sustainability. Survey from ICOMOS shown that engagement and engagement of local occupants are of import for the success of the preservation undertaking. Razzu ( 2005 ) community engagement could heighten cultural touristry and sustainability of historical country renovation undertaking. The principle of public engagement is that no 1 has better cognition and could show the local civilization except the local themselves. This is indispensable in cultural touristry as tourers come all the manner for cultural touristry purpose to experience and see the existent civilization of the finish. However, on the other manus, Taylor ( 1995 ) claimed that the engagement of public to be participants in both touristry merchandises ( touristry resources or touristry sites ) and be aftering would either make in troublesome or provide solution. Timothy ( 1999 ) figured that deficiency of expertness and apprehension by local stakeholders serve as restraints to effectual engagement in the planning and touristry merchandises.

Integration of theoretical model in the urban preservation policy is critical. However, the feasibleness of urban preservation is varies harmonizing to the urban nature. Hence, it is of import to look into and find the feasibleness of accommodating theories and schemes from literature.

2.3 Urban heritage and cultural heritage

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation ( UNESCO ) define cultural heritage as memorials, groups of edifices or sites which are of outstanding cosmopolitan value from point of position of history. Urban heritage has a broad scope of elements which includes priceless artefacts, memorials, heritage relics and historic metropolis. Steinberg ( 1996 ) mentioned that urban heritage is preservable assets which can profit the present and hereafter of metropoliss in term of good potency for both cultural positions and economic development. On the other manus, Power ( 2001 ) described a metropolis Centre as a infinite of singular edifices, attractive streets and cultural magnets that can be known as economic assets and societal assets. Proper direction on urban heritage could retain state civilization and research to economic system chance of cultural touristry. The being of international cultural organisations, such as the International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property ( ICCROM ) , the International Commission on Memorials and Sites ( ICOMOS ) and United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation ( UNESCO ) are playing critical functions in conserving and continuing the priceless cultural and natural heritage in the universe.

2.4 Concept of Urban Conservation and Urban Rehabilitation

This construct was emerged in 1950s and 1960s in Western Europe after the World War II and its mass devastation of historic metropoliss. The re-development in Western Europe alarmed the community towards the consciousness of the alone character of historic country and the demands for preservation. Steinberg ( 1996 ) stated urban rehabilitation is non simply preserve and protect the old edifice yet should include the originative usage and re-use of the assets. Feilden ( 1985 ) said destruction should ever be reserved for unsound edifices, nevertheless, if there is need to give manner for indispensable societal services, unfastened infinite or substructure. The regulation of pollex is to minimise the supplanting of bing occupants due to destruction or fix ( Hardoy, 1983 ) . Besides, the construct of rehabilitation is focus on preservation of the country as whole instead than single edifices. Five major facets for urban rehabilitation which are political facet, cultural facet, societal facet, economic facet and urbanisation facet ( Steinberg, 1996 ) should be given consideration when covering with urban rehabilitation as a whole. Table 2.1 shows the sum-up of five facets and issues for urban preservation and rehabilitation.

Table 2.1: Summary of Five Aspects and Issues for Urban Conservation and Rehabilitation.

Aspect

Issues Sing Each Aspect

Political Aspect

– National policy on urban preservation and

rehabilitation.

– Political support

Cultural Aspect

– Heritage significance of the historic metropolis.

Social Aspect

– Public engagement and impact of gentrification.

Economic Aspect

– Beginning of finance for urban preservation and

rehabilitation.

– Economy growing and revenue enhancement ( land value )

Urbanization Aspect

– Conformation with the land usage form and land

usage planning.

– Physical and infrastructural installations

*summarize from ( Steinberg, 1996 )

Besides that, harmonizing to Wong et Al ( 2006 ) , urban direction is indispensable in heightening the fight of a metropolis in urban renovation. He laid down six standards ( facets ) in urban direction which are betterment in physical conditions, economically feasible, socially just, culturally sustainable, environmentally sustainable and institutionally feasible in which betterment in physical conditions and environmentally sustainable can be classified as urbanisation facet whilst institutionally feasible can be classified as political facet. Both Steinberg and Wong et al surveies shared the similarities in the standard ( aspect ) in metropolis development which are utile to find the feasibleness of transforming an interior metropolis to cultural touristry metropolis through urban preservation and urban direction.

2.4.1 Political Aspect Feasibility

Lee ( 1996 ) emphasized that political support is critical for any national plans. Political support involves both formation of policy and proper execution of such policy. Having simply great policy on paper without proper administration and schemes executing will ne’er run into the aims. Sirisrisak ( 2009 ) has the same sentiment with Lee who mentioned that urban preservation depends much on the political will. If there is strong will in put to deathing new policy, the authorization will move providentially in preparation of appropriate policy and execution schemes to drive to the aims. Wong et Al ( 2006 ) strategic planning and direction should be integrated into the disposal model to enable political support. Government support is indispensable in every policy made and straight affected to the quality of policy result. Government support can be in the signifier of resource allotment ( fiscal support ) , proficient support, committedness in execution, transparence in decision-making and effectual direction of the proposed policy.

Ghafar ( 2008 ) , construct of preservation is considered new in Malaysia. The freshly formed Minister of Culture, Arts and Heritage in March 2004 was an effort towards promoting heritage preservation. However, though there are Torahs and organic structures of preservation such as Antiquities Act 1976 ( Act 168 ) , Town Planning Act ( Act 172 ) , Local Authorities Act 1976 ( Act 171 ) some other related passage of State Government and Local Authority, Minister of Culture Conservation and Urban Design Unit of Kuala Lumpur City Hall, Malacca Conservation Unit, Penang Conservation Unit, Heritage of Malaysia Trust, yet, they are still weak in stipulating preservation exercising in Malaysia. Political facet is of import because it shows and drives the people towards the aim of preservation. Clear and precise information, guideline and manual on preservation process could take to proper preservation.

2.4.2 Cultural Aspect Feasibility

Functions of autochthonal cultural imposts in the urban preservation country are the important issue in urban preservation ( Steinberg, 1996 ) . Cultural facet should include preservation of traditions and cultural assets besides advancing the cultural diversenesss ( Wong et al, 2006 ) . One to be declared and well-known as cultural touristry metropolis should possesses cultural heritage such as historical relics, memorials, artefacts, similarly, it should hold the ability to reflect the alone cultural features of local community. Lee ( 1996 ) clarified activities in the cultural heritage countries that reflects multi-ethnicity life should be another aims of preservation. Heritage touristry has grown and unlocked the possible value it has for the local and national economic ( Suhana, 2005 ) . “ Cultural corridor ” in Rio de Janeiro is a good illustration of regenerating the metropolis Centre with cultural and economic activities and attractive forces. However, Suhana ( 2005 ) claimed that excessively much of focal point in touristry will take to trouble to the local occupants due to crowded issue. Hence, proper direction and planning in preservation of historical site as touristry finish is critical to avoid development and deficiency of genuineness.

2.4.3 Social Aspect Feasibility

Social facet is closely related to the public engagement in doing the preservation program and gentrification impact towards the local community of the preservation country ( Steinberg, 1996 ; Razzu, 2005 ; Wong et Al, 2006 and Sirisrisak, 2009 ) . Lee ( 1996 ) pointed out in most of the historical metropoliss, the landlords are disinterest in the care and care of their old premises contributes to the physical impairment of the historical edifice. Nevertheless, make up of residents in the old lodging stock were of low income group in the yesteryear. This state of affairs enlarges the income spread in between the residents of old lodging stock and those high income residents who stay farther off from the interior metropolis lodging. Urban preservation of interior metropolis Acts of the Apostless as repellent to drive the hapless to travel to modern lodging and finally take to “ urban gentrification ” . Besides, societal facet besides includes the local community engagement in either devising of the development policy or in cultural based activity in the regeneration country. Cultural preservation in metropolis Centre needs the engagement of local community due to civilization such as imposts, traditions, nutrients, humanistic disciplines, etc can merely be demonstrated by the local themselves ( Razzu, 2005 ) .

2.4.4 Economic Aspect Feasibility

Economic facet is study on the beginning of finance and the impact of urban preservation toward land value and revenue enhancement. Source of finance is of import aspect covering with urban preservation and rehabilitation. Most of the state could n’t afford to conserve and bare the preservation cost ( Lee, 1996 ) . His statement was supported by the phenomenon whereby legion metropoliss took complete commercial way for country revival through the urban development policy such as rehabilitation-cum-redevelopment and movable development rights in which public engagement in the habilitation were encouraged by offering the chance for adaptative re-use of such historical edifice in commercial activities and at the same clip keep the heritage characteristics of the edifice and preservation country. This is normally seen in Malaysia. For case, Cardinal Market in Kuala Lumpur in which was a wet market in the British colonial period. Yet, through the attempt of preservation by adaptative re-use, it was converted into a cultural Centre market which is of import in advancing multi cultural art-works besides bring forthing gross for the preservation disbursals.

Steinberg ( 1996 ) suggested urban preservation of public belongingss to be done through public-private partnership whilst inducements in signifier of revenue enhancement freedom can be given to the private owned belongingss to promote preservation through rehabilitation or consolidation.

2.4.5 Urbanization/ Town Planning Aspect Feasibility

Urbanization facet is really much related to the town planning and zoning of preservation and environing country. Steinberg ( 1996 ) highlighted that saving of “ urban tissue ” should be the premier aims in all saving plans. He farther described urban tissue as nature and denseness of land utilizations, breadth and form of circulation paths include pathwaies, roads, back streets ) , tallness of edifices, substructure constituents and edifice typologies. There are several attacks in urban preservation include preservation, saving, Restoration, Reconstruction, reproduction, rehabilitation, bar and consolidation. The preservation attack is varies harmonizing to grade of impairment. However, no affair which attack is being adopted, the regulation of pollex is conformation to its environing edifices and the planning proviso. More than frequently, modernisation is dilemma in urban preservation. Suhana ( 2005 ) , modern life is in fact paid at cost of depersonalisation. Old edifices serve as individuality and singularity of a metropolis as the architectural design, workmanship and stuffs were diversify. This is in contradiction with the mass repetitive development undertaking in which utilized the commercially made stuffs to bring forth the same and inactive merchandises ( edifices ) .

Besides that, urbanisation facet besides includes physical and infrastructural installations such as public comfortss and transit linkage available for public involvement. Wong et Al ( 2006 ) , insufficient of public services would take to significant loss to both investors and authorities. Lee ( 1997 ) mentioned better entree to the stores and installations via pedestrian-friendly environment encourage more active street life. Topographic point linkage through street and prosaic walk enhance the attraction towards tourer. Besides, it helps in researching the local life to tourers. This shows the of import of public services and comfortss for rehabilitation particularly regeneration of historical metropolis for touristry intent.

Wong et Al ( 2006 ) schemes of urban direction for metropolis development should guideline the demands of physical betterment in which include betterment of lodging, community installations, public services and urban linkage system. Physical betterment is of import in urban preservation as by upgrading the physical status it helps to better the life quality of the local community. Better community installations and public services give an easiness to the populace while betterment in urban linkage system is indispensable in linking different topographic points in the country. Both of this is of import in touristry sector as tourers travel around in the metropolis, deficiency of proper urban linkage system constraint their motion in the metropolis on the other manus, deficiency of public installations and services is inconvenience to the tourers.

Besides that, Wong et Al ( 2006 ) besides mentioned the of import of environmental sustainable issue include both sustainable usage of natural resource for urbanisation and environmental issue ( pollution issue ) . Human depends on Earth for life as human exploits the natural resources on the Earth in order to last. Bing the Earth occupant, it is human ‘s responsible to guarantee sustainable usage of these natural resources. In the urban preservation context, environmental sustainable could be done through beautification and saving of the urban heritage site in order to keep its heritage value. More than frequently, the interior metropolis make up of hapless lodging stock and deteriorated old edifices. Environmental issue such as clear H2O quality, disposal system, hygienical issue and other related issues should be focused in the urban preservation to guarantee that they do non give rise to negative impact on the result of urban preservation.

2.5 Compatible Criteria for Urban Conservation and Urban Management

Numerous surveies on standards for urban preservation and urban direction have been done in the past. Most of them were laid on the five facets proposed by Steinberg ( 1996 ) . For the easiness of literature reappraisal, writer has grouped and tabulated those surveies harmonizing to each of the facets and shown in table 2.2 as sum-up of past research worker findings on standards for urban preservation and urban direction. Every characteristic in each facet described by different research workers serves as the fundamental in this survey.

Table 2.2 Summary of Past Researcher Findings on Criteria for Urban Conservation and Urban Management

Writer ( Year )

Political Aspect Feasibility

Cultural Aspect Feasibility

Social Aspect Feasibility

Economic Aspect Feasibility

Urbanization/ Town Planning Aspect Feasibility

Steinberg ( 1996 )

National policy is indispensable in back uping urban preservation and rehabilitation.

Functions of historical relics and autochthonal cultural traditions and imposts in the urban preservation country.

1. Public engagement

in explicating the

urban preservation

and rehabilitation

policy.

2. Impact of

gentrification.

1. Financial beginning of

urban preservation

and rehabilitation.

2. Impact on economic system

growing and revenue enhancement

( land value ) .

1. Zoning and land

usage alterations.

2. Conformation of

land usage with its

environing.

Lee ( 1996 )

Singapore ‘s urban preservation policy has succeeded in continuing its cultural heritage lead to rapid economic growing and urban development.

Ethnic-based activities need to be retained in the historical territory while consolidating the country with new trade activities.

Writer ( Year )

Political Aspect Feasibility

Cultural Aspect Feasibility

Social Aspect Feasibility

Economic Aspect Feasibility

Urbanization/ Town Planning Aspect Feasibility

Razzu ( 2005 )

Cultural preservation is closely related to public engagement as it could give a important consequence in economic facet

Wong et Al ( 2006 )

1. Institutionally

feasible which

includes planning

committedness,

resources allotment

and proper urban

direction in metropolis

development.

( Political support )

Conservation of traditions and cultural assets and publicity of cultural diversenesss of the metropolis.

Local community engagement, gentrification and societal related services should be considered in urban direction in metropolis development.

Economy growing impact due to alterations in land usage and proposed development.

1. Environmental

issues.

2. State policy in

bettering the lodging

and community

installations, public

services and linkage

system.

Writer ( Year )

Political Aspect Feasibility

Cultural Aspect Feasibility

Social Aspect Feasibility

Economic Aspect Feasibility

Urbanization/ Town Planning Aspect Feasibility

Grodach ( 2008 )

1. Ease of handiness,

good populace

transit services

and physical

environment diverseness

service as accelerator of humanistic disciplines

( cultural ) development.

2. Rezoning, fiscal

inducements, rent and

ordinances and

partnering could assist in

cultural development.

Sirisrisak ( 2009 )

Urban preservation depends much on the political will.

Public engagement and cooperation among stakeholders in doing preservation program.

2.6 Cultural touristry and Cultural tourer

Cultural touristry is subclass of heritage touristry which portions the same construct. Cultural touristry is a genre of particular involvement touristry based on the hunt for and engagement in new and deep cultural experiences, whether aesthetic, rational, emotional, or psychological ( Reisinger 1994:24 ) . Stebbins ( 1992 ) specify cultural touristry as serious leisure as it is a systematic chase of amateur, hobbyist or voluntary activity and engagement to hunt and show a combination of particular accomplishments, cognition and experience. Stebbins ( 1996 ) mentioned cultural signifiers are look of at least one popular common people humanistic disciplines or local life style which can be demonstrated through museum, festivals, historical relics and artistic public presentation. In other words, cultural touristry is the esthesis and experience that one ‘s could obtain from their trip in which these esthesis and experience root from heritage relics, local community life style, humanistic disciplines, imposts and belief.

Stebbins ( 1996 ) categorized cultural tourer into general cultural tourer and particular involvement tourer which the former is described as hobbyist of cultural touristry who seeks for continually experience from different topographic points to spread out their cognition. While the latter is much concern on certain cultural entities and has a high inclination of repetition trial. General cultural tourer is more prevailing since the growing popularity of cultural touristry.

2.7 Tourism in Malaya

Tourism is one of the chief sectors bring forthing great gross to Malaysia economic. Assortment of natural resources in Malaysia is the key to pull tourer. Table 2.4 illustrates the entire tourer reachings and grosss from 1999 to 2009. In 2009, entire tourer reachings in Malaysia are 23.6 million and it generated about RM53.4 million. Tourist reaching is in an increasing tendency from the past 10 old ages. It is expected to be continually grows in 2010. As cultural touristry is heading the tendency of touristry industry, hence it is a aureate chance to research and conserve cultural resources to turn it attractive force for prospect tourers.

Table 2.4: Tourist Arrivals and Receipts to Malaysia

Year

Arrivals ( Million )

Receipts ( RM Million )

2009

23.60

53.40

2008

22.00

49.60

2007

20.90

46.10

2006

17.45

36.30

2005

16.40

32.00

2004

15.70

29.70

2003

10.50

21.30

2002

13.20

25.80

2001

12.70

24.20

2000

10.20

17.30

1999

7.90

12.30

Beginning: Tourism Malaysia, 2010

2.8 Historical Building in Malaya

The alone historical background and multi-ethnicity in Malaysia contributed the singularity and diversity of civilization which lure foreign tourers to see Malaysia. Colonization by Portuguese, Dutch, Nipponese and Britain in the earlier twelvemonth left behind their civilization in which over 100s twelvemonth of integrating with local usage finally created a particular individuality of Malaysia. Besides cultural integrating, the physical characters of township besides contribute to the singularity. To day of the month, there were legion Pre-World War II edifices stand on the land of historical metropoliss in Malaysia. Harmonizing to an stock list on distribution of pre-war edifices in Malaysia, it was found that there are 39,000 heritage edifices built between 1800 and 1948 located throughout metropoliss in Malaysia ( Idid, 1995 ) . Table 2.5 shows the distribution of pre-war edifices located in selected provinces in Malaysia.

Table 2.5: Distribution of Pre-War Buildings Located In Selected States in Malaysia

States

Number of Pre-war Buildings

Percentage ( % )

Penang

5057

24.33

Perak

3351

16.12

Johor

2323

11.18

Malacca

2177

10.47

Kuala Lumpur

1763

8.48

Kedah

1282

6.17

Selangor

1166

5.61

Sarawak

1010

4.86

Negeri Sembilan

999

4.81

Pahang

831

4.00

Terengganu

420

2.02

Kelantan

373

1.79

Perlis

25

0.12

North borneo

10

0.05

Entire

20787

100.00

From the tabular array, it is shows that Johor possess 2,323 pre-war edifices. The uniqueness architectural design of the edifices would be an attractive force for touristry as those in Malacca and Penang if they are proper managed and maintained. Figure 2.1 shows the distribution of pre-war edifices in the Johor Bahru metropolis Centre. Shaded countries are the location of pre-war edifices. Most of the pre-war edifices are distributed along Jalan Trus, Jalan Dhoby and Jalan Tan Hiok Nee. These pre-war edifices largely built around 1920s.

Figure 2.1: Distibution of pre-war edifices in the Johor Bahru metropolis centre.C: UserscheironymsDesktop hesisTourism_4_10_2010old store location.jpg

Beginning: Comprehensive Development Plan for South Johor Economic Region 2006-2025

2.9 History of Johor

History of Johor Bahru started since 16th century. The swayer lineage is of Sultanate of Malacca when the boy of Sultan Mahmud, the last Sultan of Malacca and besides the laminitis of Johor fled to Johor after the conquest of Portuguese in Malacca in 1511. His Majesty established constitutional monarchy in Johor.

The urbanisation and modernisation of Johor started in 1855 when Temenggung Ibrahim established the administrative Centre at Tanjung Puteri, a fishing small town. Sultan Abu Bakar, “ Father of Modernization ” ( 1862-1895 ) led the transmutation and successfully developed the fishing small town into hustling metropolis Centre and finally renamed the metropolis as “ Johor ” . Most of the historical and heritage edifices in today Johor metropolis were built during the swayer of Sultan Abu Bakar. These edifices, the Grand Palace, Sultan Abu Bakar Mosque, Sultan Ibrahim Building, Maktab Sultan Abu Bakar ( English College ) , Johor Bahru Railway Station and old shophouses in the metropolis Centre reflects the history of Johor metropolis development besides functioning as the major landmarks in Johor metropolis Centre.

In line with the development of gambier and pepper agribusiness sector in mid nineteenth century, Kangchu System, a socio-economic organisation and disposal system on Chinese community was introduced. Tan Kee Soon from Ngee Heng Kongsi, Tan Hiok Nee ( Teaochew Kangchu ) and Wong Ah Fook ( Taishan contractor ) are some of the celebrated Kangchu who had contributed to the development of Johor economic system and inflow of Chinese community in Johor. As a mark of grasp of their part, several streets of the old shophouses in Johor metropolis Centre were named after their decease.

2.10 Recent Urban Development in Johor Bahru

In the written history of Johor, it was one time an outstanding transshipment center in the Riau Archipelago. This feature was inherited and influenced the later economic development of the province. Johor Bahru bit by bit developed as one of the most of import urban metropolis in Malaysia after Kuala Lumpur and Penang. Johor Bahru granted the metropolis position in 1 January 1994. Blessed with the natural resources and strategic location, Johor Bahru is now a commercial hub taking in both industrial and logistical activities.

Growth of Johor province economic system can be seen through the development of heavy industrial in Pasir Gudang, light industrial in Kulai, Senai, Skudai, Tampoi and Tebrau, commercial in Johor metropolis country with the constitution of several big graduated table shopping composites. Urbanization in Johor metropolis is reflected by the rapid development and building of big graduated table undertaking such as the development of Johor International Conventional Centre ( JICC ) , well-known as PERSADA Johor and development of the City Square commercial edifice.

Recently Johor province is nourished with the Iskandar Malaysia ( IM ) economic corridor development program under the 9th Malaysia Plan in order to function as accelerator to excite development of strong, sustainable urban sprawl of international standing in the development. The kernel and execution of IM is detailed in the Comprehensive Development Plan ( CDP ) .

2.10.1 Comprehensive Development Plan ( CDP )

Comprehensive Development Plan serves as a elaborate and comprehensive Master Plan for the development of Iskandar Malaysia with an aim of turn toing socio-economic development in a holistic and sustainable manner conformity to the IM ( CDP, 2005 ) . The CDP development and execution model is based on the 10 rules of Civilization Islam ( Islam Hadhari ) in which include:

1. Faith in and piousness towards God

2. A merely and trusty authorities

3. Free and liberated people

4. A strict chase and command of cognition

5. Balance and comprehensive economic development

6. A good quality of life for the people

7. Protection of the rights of minority groups and adult females

8. Cultural and moral unity

9. Safeguarding of the environment

10. Strong defence capablenesss

These 10 rules are embedded in the CDP model and execution program in order to accomplish the development aim. The CDP model categorizes three chief facets of development scheme, societal development, physical development and economical development. These development schemes are subdivided into five planning and development attacks in which each of the attack is accomplished with one or more execution schemes in order to direct the development flow and explicate how such scheme is to be implemented and to what extent should be implemented. Table 2.6 shows the tabled signifier of the planning and development attacks and execution scheme.

Table 2.6: Planning and development attacks and execution scheme in the Comprehensive Development Plan

CDP Planning and Development Approach

Execution Scheme

Regulatory, Legal and Institutional Framework and Enterprises

– Regulatory, Legal and Institutional Enterprises

Social and Holistic Development Enterprises

– Livable Communities

– Sociable Development Enterprises

Physical Planning Development Enterprises

– Physical Development Plan

– South Johor Urbanization

– Natural and Green Environment

– The Coastal Zone

– Johor Bahru City Centre

Infrastructure Development Enterprises

– Urban Infrastructure

– Urban Linkage System

– Theodolite Oriented Development

Commercial Development Enterprises

– Commercial Development

Enterprises

2.10.2 Physical Planning Development Initiatives – Johor Bahru City Centre

Goal for Physical Planning Development Initiatives in Johor Bahru City Centre is to renew Johor Bahru into a vivacious economic Centre while continuing its cultural and heritage values. The CDP includes some action programs such as urban blessedness, urban renovation and urban regeneration in order to rejuvenate Johor Bahru as a vivacious economic Centre.

Bing the province capital, Johor Bahru needs to be regenerated and rejuvenated to demo an image of a modern metropolis. As it is located at the southern gateway, it is critical to affect aliens with good image. Although it is of import, yet attempts for continuing are needed to at least maintain the civilization of local community. Furthermore, Johor Bahru came to its being as province capital since 1855 during the opinion of 20th Sultan, Temenggong Tun Daeng Ibrahim. An about 155 old ages of heritage and cultural value of the metropolis, both touchable and intangible, should be preserved and maintained as it is signifier of the state individuality.

CDP guidelines in order to accomplish the abovementioned end, three schemes need to be implemented.

1. Designate the heritage precinct of Johor Bahru Centre concern territory as a saving and preservation country.

2. Continua enforcement of saving and preservation of bing edifices and sites.

3. Protect the characteristic of the heritage zone and the sweetening of the streetscape and new edifices within the locality of the preservation countries.

2.11 Cultural Tourism Hotspot in Johor Bahru City

Bing the capital metropolis of Johor province for about 155 old ages, Johor Bahru metropolis Centre viewed the growing of the province since the really first Sultan, the colonial period, independent of Tanah Malayu and the formation of Malaysia. It is non deniable that Johor Bahru has its ain heritage and cultural background that could stands and represents the individuality of both the local community and the past image of the metropolis. There are historical edifices and singular landmarks in the metropolis Centre that worth for heritage preservation and should be promoted as cultural touristry hot spot. Brief debut on every cultural touristry hot spot will be revealed in the undermentioned portion. Figure 2.2 demonstrates the location of the cultural touristry hot spot.

2.11.1 Johor Chinese Old Temple

The Johor Old Chinese Temple is located at Jalan Trus, at the bosom of Johor Bahru. It is one of the oldest constructions in Johor Bahru. It was constructed by Chinese community leaders, led by Tan Hiok Nee in the nineteenth century ( Qing Dynasty of China Rural ) . The temple still remains its original relics such as the ancient bronze bell, wooden tablet and joss stick pot although it has been renovated in 1995/1996. The major redevelopment cost is at RM1.5 Million. The intent of the redevelopment is to keep the heritage and historical value of the edifice. The attempt of the Johor State Government in protecting the heritage helps in advancing the cultural touristry in Johor.

The temple is dedicated to the five primary Supreme beings of the five Chinese major idiom groups: the Cantonese, Hainanese, Teochew, Hakka and the Hokkien. The temple behaviors emanation in which the Supreme beings are put on parade yearly on the 20th of the first month of the lunar calendar.

The temple itself as a heritage edifice is the chief attractive force for cultural touristry. Furthermore, the one-year activities keep could entice tourers in the engagement of the civilization and heighten the experiential trip.

2.11.2 Gurdwara Sahib ( Sikh Temple )

Gurdwara Sahib is located in between Jalan Wong Ah Fook and Kota Raya Plaza which is following to Sri Raja Mariamman Temple. The Sikh temple, Gurdwara Sahib was constructed in late 1921. Gurdwara Sahib was expanded in 1992 to suit larger infinite due to the turning of Sikh population in the vicinity.

Sikh is an Indian faith founded by “ Guru Nanak ” . Sikh temple is known as “ Gurdwara ” in Punjabi linguistic communication. They are arising in northwest of New Delhi, India. In the early twelvemonth, they were employed in the Police Force and most of them serve as guard.

2.11.3 Sri Raja Mariamman Temple ( Hindu Temple )

Sri Raja Mariamman Temple is located in between the traffic-thronged Jalan Wong Ah Fook and Kota Raya Plaza. This old Hindu temple was established in 1911 by Kathamuthu Vandayar who was a supervisor of a plantation belongs to Johor Sultan, Raja Ibrahim Sultan Abu Bakar. The temple was built by the Sultan after having the petition for worship topographic point from Kathamuthu Vandayar. The fans named the temple Sri Raja Mariamman Temple as grasp to the Sultan ‘s kindness.

The temple is similar with those originated from Southern India which has colorful graphicss and figures at every corner of the premises and some mystical characters run alonging the pyramidic rooftop. The temple is crowded with fans during the major Hindu festivals. Furthermore, the being of impermanent flower pedlars livens up the country.

2.11.4 Small India ( Jalan Ungku Puan )

The location of Jalan Ungku Puan is near to the Hindu Temple, Sri Raja Mariamman Temple. The street is crowded with flower stables and fans during the Hindus Festival. Besides, the shophouses along the street were chiefly occupied by Indian. It gained its name of Little India due to this intent.

2.11.5 State Secretariat Building ( Bangunan Sultan Ibrahim )

State Secretariat Building is located on Bukit Timbalan, Johor Bahru, overlooking the Strait of Johor. The edifice was erected in 1940 with Saracenic architectural design. It was the tallest edifice in Johor Bahru in 1970 ‘s. The edifice has 11 floors on the land and has a entire physique up country of 60,000 square pess. During the Nipponese business in Malaya in World War II, the edifice was occupied by the Nipponese Imperial Army as its bastion and military bid Centres to be after and reconnoiter the activities of British Army in Singapore.

State Secretariat and other sections of the State Government inclusive of both Chief Minister ‘s office and Assembly Hall is the host of the edifice. However, with the development of the Iskandar Malysia, all the province disposals will bit by bit travel to Kota Iskandar, Nusajaya, the Johor State New Administration Centre get downing from 18 June 2009.

2.11.6 Cultural Street of Jalan Tan Hiok Nee

Jalan Tan Hiok Nee was late declared as a cultural street. The street gained it name from a Kangchu, Tan Hiok Nee, a man of affairs from Teochew, China who had contributed for gambier and pepper plantation in the yesteryear. He said to be a cardinal individual in the development of trading of gambier, Piper nigrum and opium in the early twelvemonth.

Jalan Tan Hiok Nee has a length of suitably 300 metre in which started at the intersection of Jalan Bukit Timbalan and ends at the intersection of Jalan Sengget. Aligning both sides of the street was heritage shophouses. There are street activities at dark along the street including the presentation of Chinese soldierly art, stall for handcraft, old common people vocalizing public presentation and others. Besides that, some of the old shophouses were renovated and re-occupied for concern intent, selling the local merchandise, eating houses and dress shop. There is besides dark bazar on the street on every Saturday.

2.11.7 Johor Bahru Chinese Heritage Museum

Johor Bahru Chinese Heritage Museum is located at Jalan Ibrahim, Johor Bahru. It is founded by the Johor Bahru Tionghua Society ( once known as Ngee Heng Society ) which is made up of the five Chinese major idiom groups, the Cantonese, Hainanese, Hakka, Hokkien and Teochew. In the attempt of saving of heritage edifice, the State Government had spent RM 1.2 Million to re-implement the Museum in order to continue Chinese heritage value points and maintain a record on the beginnings of Chinese community in Johor Bahru. Johor Menteri Besar Dato ‘ Abdul Ghani Othman had launched the Museum on 3 October 2009.

The Museum amasses about 1,300 historical papers and artefacts of the five Chinese major idiom groups, which is inclusive of the exposure of olden yearss of Johor, exhibition of Chinese trade goods, history of the “ Kangchu ” system of plantations, part of Ngee Heng Society, history of the socio-economic and cultural heritage of the Chinese, history of how they gone through the colonial period, Nipponese business, World War II, communist insurgence, birth of an independent Malaya and the formation of Malaysia. Although the Museum is non dramatic yet it is enlightening and corporate in offering synergistic penetration into a community.

2.11.8 Railway Station Keretapi Tanah Melayu Bhd ( KTMB )

The railroad station is located at Tanjong Pagar, Jalan Tun Razak. It was built in 1931 at a cost of RM75, 900. The 80 years-old edifice was closed for operation in July 2010. The railroad service was taken over by the Johor Bahru Sentral in which serves the map as Kuala Lumpur Sentral. The closed railroad station will be used as museum exposing the train antiquity, Token system and art hoarded wealths of KTM. It is the largest museum in Malaysia.

2.11.9 Meldrum Walk ( Persiaran Meldrum )

Meldrum Walk ( Persiaran Meldrum ) is prosaic walkway located at Jalan Meldrum. It is connected to the Jalan Wong Ah Fook and Jalan Tun Abdul Razak via Jalan Siu Nam, Jalan Siu Chin and Jalan Siew Koon. The street gained its name from Dato ‘ Meldrum ( 1821-1904 ) , a Scots who had established timber logging industry in Johor. This street is alone and is well-known as “ Pedestrian Mall ” whereby there are a batch of nutrient stables selling assortment of local nutrients. The street walk is celebrated with “ side walk cafe ” whereby clients can please their appetency by local nutrients.

2.11.10 Legaran Segget

Legaran Segget is located along Jalan Wong Ah Fook. It is developed in such a mode of Pedestrian Mall with subject of “ Creating Human Experience ” . It is a topographic point that consists of nutrient stables, keepsake stables and heritage and cultural information Centre. Besides that, Johor Bahru Municipal Council cooperated with the Johor State Cultural and Arts Department to keep cultural humanistic disciplines public presentation in every Friday, Saturday and Sunday to advance local civilization. This cooperation aims in organizing cultural Centre in Legaran Segget.

2.11.11 The Grand Palace and Royal Abu Bakar Museum

The Grand Palace is located along Jalan Tun Dr. Ismail, overlooking the Straits of Johor. It was built in 1866 by a squad of local craftsmen lead by a European designer. The castle has an Anglo-Malay architectural design with Malay manner dome and bluish roof of Anglo manner.

In the 1990, Sultan Iskandar, officially declared the Grand Palace as a museum and at the same clip the castle is still in used for coronations, province feasts and royal maps in the province. The intent of doing the castle as museum is to let public to hold the opportunity to see the Royal Family ‘s Collection. The museum exposing the art hoarded wealths of the Royal aggregation, historical relics and history of His Majesty ‘s household.

2.11.12 Sultan Abu Bakar Mosque

Sultan Abu Bakar Mosque is located at Jalan Sri Blukar ( off Jalan Ibrahim ) , overlooking to the Straits of Johor. Bing the State Mosque of Johor, it can suit about 2,000 fans. It is built in late nineteenth century by Sultan Abu Bakar, the “ Father of Modern Johor ” . The mosque has English Victorian architectural design with manner of Moorish and Malay. The chiefly Victorian manner of the edifice was incorporated by Corinthian columns, Moorish domes and minarets that look alike with the British clock towers. It is well-known as the most beautiful mosque in Malaysia.

Figure 2.2 Location of The Cultural Tourism Hotspot.

Degree centigrades: UserscheironymsDesktop hesisTourism_4_10_2010historical hotspot.jpg

2.12 Drumhead

Urban preservation aims non merely for regeneration of a historical metropolis but besides of import to keep civilization and individuality of the community. Proper scheme planning is indispensable for executing yet deficiency of public consciousness and support may take to failure or ineffectualness.