The Effects Of Disasters On Tourism Tourism Essay

Since a decennary ago, many industries including the bearers are enduring due to the fiscal downswing in the planetary economic and many other economic sciences factor. For illustration, ordinances, natural catastrophes, political relations between states and etc. Despite the downswing, authorities and air hose industries are taking enterprises to better themselves to get by and some are retrieving in a higher rate than expected from the planetary economic crisis within this period. Within the past 10 old ages, many incidents and alterations in the authorities policies took topographic point that leads to the agonies and betterment of the air hose industry that causes alterations in the market conditions that have affected the air hose industry.


Fuel Monetary value:

One of the chief factors that made a large impact over the past 10 old ages would be the fuel monetary value. Fuel is a complementary good for air hose industry therefore alterations in monetary value affects the economic system of air hose industry. Figure 1 shows the monetary value of crude oil over the old ages and it hit the highest at $ 147.27 on 11 July 2008. Many states import fuel from states who produces it due to resources handiness and increase in fuel price/barrel would intend that addition in cost to the air hose proportionately. This affect to a great extent on most air hose industry because addition in monetary value of fuel lead to increase in their cost. Airliners will so increase their ticket menu to cover their cost and this might impact the demand for ticket menu in the short tally. But due to the monetary value inelastic to demand, people will still go despite the addition in monetary value after a period.

Figure 1: Monetary value per barrel from 1996-2010[ 1 ]

BY Sara Algoe, 2009, How a rise in fuel monetary values affect the air hose industry, [ Online Article ] hypertext transfer protocol: //

Monetary and Fiscal Policy:

Fiscal policy or revenue enhancements impose or removed by the authorities will impact the air hose industry every bit good because when revenue enhancements are imposed, revenue enhancement are shared between the consumer and the manufacturer or provider. The higher load of revenue enhancement normally falls on the party that is inelastic or less elastic to the monetary value of the goods and services. When revenue enhancement are imposed, the ticket menu will be higher, therefore switch the aggregative demand curve downwards. Switching in the aggregative demand downwards will ensue in an addition of the ticket menu. Examples of revenue enhancements imposed to the air hose industry are the air hose ticket revenue enhancement, International Arrival and Departure Tax, the Green Tax, service revenue enhancement, etc. When the menu of the flight ticket is expensive, demand for the flight will fall. This normally occurs during good economic system growing whereby supply will non be able to run into the demand. When this occurs, a deficit is said to hold taken topographic point. When the revenue enhancements are imposed, the federal authorities would non alter or take their infliction in the close hereafter. This is because revenue enhancements are imposed merely after undergone thorough consideration of the society and state ‘s public assistance.

Sometimes the authorities will besides take pecuniary action in the economic system normally by doing alterations in the involvement rates. Government will increase the involvement rates during the clip of high economic growing. This is done either to cut down the sum of money circulating in the market by addition nest eggs or to increase the state ‘s pecuniary value comparison to another state or in another word, doing investing in the state that offer the highest involvement rate of return. This action is taken against the consumer so that their demand for flight services will fall. This will do the air hose companies to hold small to put. At this state of affairs, the state ‘s market status will seek to equilibrate themselves to accomplish its equilibrium point.

When the market status is non making good or is in recession, authorities will implement financial or pecuniary policy to assist help the industry. For case, subsidies are given to air hose industry to hike the air power economic system so that monetary value of ticket menu will be low and therefore promote people to go. Lower involvement rate can besides switch the aggregative demand of upwards and excite investing disbursement. The article below shows how authorities can impact the air hose industry by utilizing Fiscal policy ;

April 12th, 2010 by My Efficient Planet, [ Online Article ] hypertext transfer protocol: //

September 11, 2001 incident:

Since the incident of September 11, 2001, in the United States ( US ) , terrorist ‘s onslaught on the World Trade Centre, many flight attenders and pilots resign because they felt harmed as their workplaces have turned into war zone.[ 2 ]This causes the figure of unemployment in the state increases from 3.9 % in late 2000 to 4.9 % in August 2001 and a autumn in the state economic public assistance and national income due to the 1000000s of dollars losingss during the close down of the Centre. At the same clip, the duplicate circuit of World Trade Centre is shut down for a period of clip for Reconstructions. Many air hoses shut down due to the incident either causes by bankruptcy or reconstituting their air hoses securities and etc. Big air hoses manage to draw through the period of depression of economic but many little air hoses autumn into bankruptcy. Besides that, due to the terrorist onslaught incident, many people cut down their demand for flight services from going holiday to necessity. This causes a autumn in net income for the air hoses industry in the US which is chiefly due to the autumn in monetary value of the flight fees to pull demand in the market.

SARS eruption:

Within these ten old ages, many catastrophes attack the state. SARS was one of the diseases resulted the most consequence on the air hose industry. Harmonizing to the BBC News it is said that SARS hits air hose “ more than war ” .[ 3 ]Due to SARS which hit the state globally, visitants departed from other states or even within the state are required to undergone wellness checked and quarantined for a period of clip depending on the wellness status of the visitant. Almost all states encountered this virus, but during the twelvemonth 2002, Hong Kong was the worst, ensuing in a autumn in statistics of rider traffic in the Hong Kong International Airport by 80 % comparison to the old twelvemonth. Many flight tickets that are booked in progress are cancelled. This will intend a big autumn in the touristry gross in Hong Kong air hose industries. Harmonizing to the Cathay Pacific ‘s, as a solo air hose ‘s fiscal reappraisal, it shows a important autumn of rider service turnover of 16 % due to the SARS outbreak compare to the twelvemonth earlier. Demand for normal or expensive flights autumn drastically. Therefore, give chance to the low cost air hoses to turn. SARS was so happen to hit Hong Kong at the clip of their state ‘s economic downswing and high rate of unemployment about causes a ruinous consequence.


Emergence of the Low Cost Airline Industry:

Due to the diseases, fiscal planetary downswing and etc. , within that period of 2001-2010, many low cost air hose emerged which affect the air hose industry partly due to their low menu. For illustrations, AirAsia, JetBlue Airways, Virgin Group, etc. Low cost air hose will increase the supply in the air hose industry but will besides make competition among other air hoses. Consumer would prefer to pay lesser for the same transit therefore monetary value war will happen among low cost air hose and normal air hose.

Volcano eruption ( natural catastrophe ) :

Recently, on July 2010, in Iceland, the vent eruption has caused the air hose industry, IATA to be in a great loss of up to US $ 200 million a twenty-four hours. This is because 16000 out of 28000 were cancelled on the dark of the incident and 8000 are cancelled on the undermentioned twenty-four hours[ 5 ]. Many are shut down impermanent as harmonizing to research, it is said that the dust from the eruption can do amendss to the aircrafts and the visibleness radius is really minimum. Besides that, the air hoses ‘ are seeking to fund themselves for re-routing, attention for isolated riders and stranded aircrafts in certain countries. This eruption has caused the largest shut down of air hoses since World War II.


In my point of position after traveling through researches and articles, the chief facet that would impact the air hose industry would be the fuel monetary value. This is because fuel is the 2nd highest outgo in the air hose industry behind labour harmonizing to research. Over the old ages, many airliners encounter jobs of bankruptcy because of the ups and downs of fuel monetary value. We can see it clearly from the research that in good economic growing, fuel costs about 10 % -15 % of the overall outgo of air hose industry. As fuel monetary value additions, this figure can increase up to 30 % and will be airliners to be in great shortage. As a consequence, new airliners emerge and provide low cost menu to consumers such as Virgin America in the US, AirAsia in Malaysia and many more.[ 6 ]This air hose can supply much lower cost and no fuel-surcharge because they use a smaller aeroplane. This is because smaller aeroplane consumes lesser fuel due to its burden. Besides that, natural catastrophe may be another factor that will impact the market of air hose industry. For case, the SARS eruption during the twelvemonth 2002 has lead to a enormous autumn in demand for air hose tickets. Peoples are afraid to be in an aeroplane for long hours during this clip because SARS can be infected easy and many safeguard stairss are taken which is clip devouring. Many airliners are in shortage during this clip and it ca n’t be avoided.

The rapid addition of net income from shortage that is expected by IATA is likely due to the emerging of the low cost air hose that has become the consumer ‘s penchant. Consumers demand for low cost air hoses that provide small installations due to the economic system status that are retrieving from recession. Other than that, it may besides due to the actions taken by the authorities to promote people in the state to go domestically which are less dearly-won and at the same clip helps the state ‘s economic growing. This allows the low cost air hoses to assist to better the shortage of the air hose industry as a whole.