Sugar And Textile Industries Tourism Essay

The worsening of the sugar and fabric industries has led island with no option others than to concentrate on touristry. The Mauritanian economic system is going greatly reliant on touristry. If Mauritius desire to pull 2 million tourers by 2015, other facets such as environment, heritage and civilization has to be marketed to accomplish other touristry sections

Presents, taking a vacation is going critical as twenty-four hours by twenty-four hours stress keeps turning. But with clip, people demands and wants have changed and turn out to be more complex. They typically look for more sophisticated goods and services whereby trade name name and quality play indispensable parts in their outlooks and satisfactions. Therefore, there are legion factors that motivates tourer to prefer Mauritius as a finish, and these have to be known to re assess Mauritius strength and failings. This will ease to vie among other touristry finishs in the Indian Ocean.

The image of elegant hotels is more important than the image that the finish portrays in footings of activities, out-of-door diversion and sight visual perception. Therefore, one time placing the motives of the traveller, Mauritius can bring forth attractive sections that will take peculiar consumers. The motivation factors will besides help in avoiding wastage of resources, as we will place what motivates tourer largely, therefore seting accent on these factors.

Profile of Mauritius

Mauritius is a pear-shaped volcanic island situated off the sou’-east seashore of theA African continentA in the sou’-west Indian Ocean, approximately 900A kilometres ( 560 myocardial infarction ) east ofA Madagascar. In add-on to the island of Mauritius, the Republic includes the islands ofA Cargados Carajos, A RodriguesA and theA Agalega Islands. Mauritius Island is portion of theA Mascarene Islands, with the Gallic island ofA ReunionA 200A kilometer ( 120 myocardial infarction ) to the sou’-west and the island ofA RodriguesA 570A kilometer ( 350 myocardial infarction ) to the nor’-east. The island surrounded by coral reefs, which protect the lagunas from the unfastened sea. It is good known for its white flaxen beaches, turquoise lagunas, sub tropical clime and multicultural facets. The friendliness of its population makes Mauritius as a popular finish in the universe.

Mauritius is a good established tourer having state in the Indian Ocean on a extremely competitory universe market ( Colin and Baum, 1995 ) . The population appraisal for the whole democracy is 1,264,867, for the island of Mauritius merely, as at 31 December 2007, it is 1,227,078. “ It forms a mixture of different races, civilizations and faiths since Mauritians are posterities of immigrants from the Indian sub-continent, Africa, Europe and China. The cultural diverseness and racial harmoniousness of the island make Mauritius a alone topographic point. ” ( Ministry of Tourism, leisure and External Communications, 2007 )

The touristry industry in Mauritius has become the most of import foreign exchange earner. In 1980, the figure of tourer reachings was 166,000 with tourers passing around US $ 10 million ( bank of Mauritius statistics, 2000 ) . In twelvemonth 2009, tourer ‘s reachings increased to 871,356. Datas from the Bank of Mauritius indicate that Gross touristry grosss for the twelvemonth 2009 were estimated by the Bank of Mauritius at Rs 35,693 million.

Mauritius is turn toing all these restraints through rational commercial schemes, market consolidation, enlargement and variegation, a sufficient supply of air seats and ecological enterprises for merchandise all right -tuning. It is guided by a differentiated placement based on security, generousness, quality service, excellence and the expanded merchandise port pagination of the island with a assortment of value for money offers every bit good as considerable fiscal resources for marketing the finish. It is critical to set up close propinquity with market participants and civilization strong bonds with them through public dealingss and strict communicating.

Chapter 2

Literature reappraisal

2.1 Introduction

Different surveies have dealt with tourer motive for taking a trip. Understanding why people take a trip and what factors persuade their behavioural purpose in taking a holiday finish are important for touristry contrivers and sellers. These surveies have found out that there are two factors that motivate people to go: “ push ” and “ pull ” factors ( Awaritefe, 2004 ; Crompton, 1979 ; Dann, 1977 ; Fodness, 1994 ; Uysal and Hagan, 1993 ; Uysal and Jurowski, 1994 ; Yoon and Uysal, 2001 ) . The “ push ” factors are those elements that push a individual from abode and do him visualize to go someplace else. The “ pull ” factors magnetize the individual/tourist/traveler toward a finish due to its situation/region and the sensed attraction of the destination/country. As the Theory of Planned Behavior ( Azjen 1991 ) posits, factors such as attitudes toward a finish, subjective norms and sensed behavioural control might besides act upon tourer pick of finish every bit good as their future behavioural purposes. Understanding the future behaviour of travellers seems to be important for finish directors and finish selling organisations ( Lam and Hsu, 2005 ) .

Tourist/travel motives have been given the attending by both bookmans and practicians for a long clip because of its close relationship with tourer behavior. Harmonizing to Jang and Cai ( 2002 ) , strong linkages between travel motives and finish picks have been good documented in touristry literature ( e.g. , Coltman, 1989 ; Mansfeld, 1992 ; Turnbull and Uysal, 1995 ) . Fodness ( 1994 ) argues that although motive is merely one of many variables ( e.g. perceptual experiences, cultural conditioning, and larning ) that may lend to explicating tourer behavior, it is a critical variable because it is the driving force behind all behaviors. It is besides believed that tourer behavior could be predicted by the implicit in motives ( Pearce and Caltabino, 1983 ) .

From the position of practicians like finish sellers, to win in today ‘s competitory environment, it is critical for them to set up a strong tantrum between their finish properties and the motives of the mark markets through effectual selling and promotional programmes ( Jang and Cai, 2002 ) . Consequently, the survey and research on tourist/travel motives is of great significance in touristry surveies.

2.2 Motivation

In peculiar, we examined the motives “ hunt for relaxation ” , “ hunt for the good clime of the finish, ” “ wonder, ” and “ sing friend and relations. ” Harmonizing to the typology of McIntosh and Goeldner ( 1984 ) , the first two are physical motives and the 2nd and 3rd are cultural and interpersonal motives, severally.

The hunt for “ relaxation ” and “ clime

In position to these physical motives, we can province that a stay in a finish over a period of clip allows for the disbursement or satisfaction of the property of the finish, such as “ relaxation ” or the “ clime ” that subsist at a certain topographic point and that the tourist/traveler obtains value from this. We can say that people who prefer a finish for its clime or for relaxation have a superior leaning to go more if they receive these properties in return.

Curiosity about sing a finish

We can see wonder in the similar sense as earlier, because travel allows an single with wonder about a finish to delight his or her rational demand to cognize.

Visiting “ friends and relations

The interpersonal motive of socialising through sing friends and relations at least on one juncture in a twelvemonth leads many persons to this type of touristry.

2.2.3 Motivations for Choosing a Finish

The theory of consumer behaviour considers that motives represent single internal forces that lead to action ( Schiffman and Kanuk 1978 ) . In this regard, tourer motives are features of persons that influence the pick of finishs, because they act as push factors taking to the realisation of tourer travel ( Moutinho 1987 ; Sirakaya 1992 ; Gartner 1993 ; Sirakaya, McLellan, and Uysal 1996 ; Kim and Lee 2002 ) . It is imperative to emphasize that the choice of a steadfast vacation finish implies an aspiration for some sort of benefit. Because of this, motives play a cardinal function in finish pick, as they constitute internal ideas that lead tourist behavior toward certain terminals ( Nahab 1975 ) ; in other words, they are the grounds why people take a vacation ( Santos 1983 ) . The implicit in logic is that tourer motives can develop into a chief generators of public-service corporation when sing distant finishs. Consequently, the influence of distance on finish option could differ depending on the tourer ‘s motives. In add-on to the above, You et al ( 2000 ) proposed that sellers should acknowledge the differences among states as a footing for planing effectual selling plans.

2.4 The construct of selling

What is marketing? The term selling in itself is considered as complex, peculiarly when applied to really diverse sectors within the planetary touristry industry. This complexness has given rise to many misconceptions about selling in general and its application to the touristry industry ( Youell, 1998 ) .

2.4.1 Marketing Mix

The selling mix is among one of the most indispensable constructs in the selling of touristry merchandises and services. It is normally referred to as the 4Ps and consists of merchandise, topographic point and publicity. Nevertheless, some research workers have extended to 7 or more Postscripts to show the advancement accomplished in this sector.


The term ‘product ‘ in the touristry industry is diverse from other sectors. The service sector exhibits some precise features which are as follows:


Tourism merchandises can non straight be seen, tasted, felt or heard prior to their acquisition and ingestion compared to fabricate goods. Operators rely to a great extent on booklets and other promotional points to sell their merchandises ( Weaver & A ; Oppermann, 2000 ) .


Tourism services are characterized by inseparability, with production and ingestion happening at the same clip merely like the air hose industry. Staffs, particularly front-liners, who attend to these tourers, have a important function to pay to do their stay unique ( Weaver & A ; Opperman, 2000 ) .


Keeping the merchandise uniformity/consistency is non easy with touristry merchandises. Influences such as the conditions, attitude of staff, clip of the twelvemonth and quality of nutrient can change the same merchandise purchased at different times or by different clients ( Youell, 1998 ) . However, all touristry merchandises experience alterations throughout their lifetime though it is hard to calculate when precisely.


Tourism services can non be produced and stored today for ingestion at some future point in clip.

Monetary value

Monetary value is often used as the most suited and seeable selling mix tool since affordability constitute a important pull factor. However, consumers may place this autumn in monetary value as an index of quality, that is, if the monetary value is low, the merchandise might be of bad quality. Permanent or impermanent price reductions are frequently given to aim specific groups who are sensitive to high monetary values, for illustration, senior citizens, kids ‘s price reductions ( Weaver & A ; Oppermann, 2000 ) .

Topographic point

Topographic point is indispensable because tourists/travelers must travel to the finish in order to devour the merchandise ( holiday ) . Hence, production and ingestion occur non merely at the similar clip but besides at the similar topographic point. Accessibility besides is really of import as it represents the extent to which the markets and finishs are connected ( Weaver & A ; Oppermann, 2000 ) .


If the merchandise has been intended to run into up the demands of the mark market, priced competitively and made accessible in the right topographic points, so it should be reasonably effortless to invent a successful promotional run.

2.5 Functions of circuit operators

Harmonizing to Carey, Gountas and Gilbert ( 1997 ) a circuit operator is one of the major influences for the nature of touristry demand. Tour operators marketing activities, in general, by and large focal point is on promotional activities. Finishs should be able to bring forth a win-win place for both the finishs and circuit operators and gained their religion. In return the circuit operators should develop bundles that shall drag the highest figure of tourers to the finishs.

2.5.1 Functions of National Tourism Organizations ( NTO )

The National Tourism Organization is officially responsible for the selling and development of touristry for a state ( Morgan, 1996 ; Mill et Al, 2002 ) . Harmonizing to Pearce et Al ( 1998 ) , NTO acts as a gateway for travellers and the travel trade to assorted type of information on its state. It besides organizes educational workshops and seminars in foreign states to advance the finish mix of the state to the travel trade and provides chances for the travel doctrine of the finish and bring forthing states to put up working relationships.

2.6 Theories of motor and motive

Difference between motor and motive

There is a battalion of theories on motivation and motive in literature ( e.g. , Maslow, 1954 ; Murray, 1964 ; Iso-Ahola, 1982 ; Hoyenga and Hoyenga, 1984 ; Heckhausen, 1989 ; Pyo and Uysal, 1990 ; Uysal and Hagan, 1993 ; Gnoth, 1997 ) . As motor and motive are two similar nouns that have correspondent significances, most bookmans regard these two words as the same. However, Gnoth ( 1997 ) tells the little difference between the two words. He agrees with Heckhausen ‘s ( 1989: 7-16 ) definition of motivation, “ a motivation is a permanent temperament ” , and argues that every motivation has its ain distinguishable type of contents in the signifier of ends of behavior. “ Contentss ” here denotes that a individual chooses from a repertory of learned or convinced actions, while the “ ends ” refer to the effects of one ‘s actions ( Gnoth, 1997 ) . Conversely, Gnoth ( 1997 ) thinks motives contain consequences of situation-person interactions. Hence, in Gnoth ‘s ( 1997 ) sentiment, motivations are a classification of the energy that moves people to move, whereas motives are a corporate term for procedures and effects with common parametric quantities: in a peculiar state of affairs, a individual chooses certain behaviour for its expected consequences.

2.6.1 Concepts of motivation and motive

Murray ( 1964 ) defines motor as an internal factor that arouses, directs, and integrates a individual ‘s behavior. This internal factor can be likened to “ an consciousness of possible satisfaction ” in a future state of affairs, intending that motivations are cognitive representations of future provinces ( Deci, 1975:99 ) . Then it is proposed that motives play the cardinal function in the S-C-R ( Stimulus-cognition-response ) theoretical account of human behavior, being influenced by stimulation inputs and act uponing behavior ( Iso-Ahola, 1982 ) . Thus the stimulation inputs stemming from the physical or societal environment and the being give rise to consciousness of possible satisfaction, thereby originating a sequence of motivated behavior ( Iso-Ahola, 1982 ) . Hence, motivations are aroused when persons think of certain activities they could, should, or might make in the hereafter, activities that are potentially satisfaction-producing ( Iso-Ahola, 1982 ) .

Besides the interior factor, a large trade of bookmans attaches farther factors to the term “ motor ” . A figure of research workers use the term “ motor ” to mention to internal forces, external ends and inducements that guide, direct, and incorporate a individual ‘s behavior, for future, possible satisfaction ( Iso-Ahola, 1982 ; Hoyenga and Hoyenga, 1984 ; Pyo and Uysal, 1990 ; Uysal and Hagan, 1993 ) .

From a psychological position, Krech et Al. ( 1962: 68 ) gives the definition that “ the survey of way and continuity of attitudes is the survey of motive ” . Harmonizing to Dann ( 1981 ) , these attitudes are based on hierarchically organised demands ( Maslow, 1954 ) which are end related. Maslow ( 1943 ) categorises human demands as follows:

– A demand for self-actualisation ;

– A demand for self-pride ;

-A need to belong and be loved ;

-A need for safety and security ;

-A physiological demand.

These demands emerge as motives in the hierarchy as listed above so that merely as the demand below is satisfied, the following demand emerges as a motive capable of being fulfilled ( Maslow, 1943 ) . A individual will endeavor to delight the most indispensable demands foremost. When a individual succeeds in fulfilling a lower degree demand, it will discontinue being a current incentive, and the individual will seek to fulfill the following most-important demand ( Kotler, 1991 ) . Thus the hierarchy of demands may be thought of as moral force, where higher ranked demands go possible and desirable on the attainment of lower ranked demands and where the hierarchy itself is capable to alter ( Maslow, 1954 ) .

Subsequently McClelland ( 1987 ) emphasised on the importance of accomplishment and developed a motive theory rooted in civilization. He argues that people possess four chief sets of demands and socially developed motivations: the demand for accomplishment, power, association, and turning away ( McClelland, 1987 ) . Likewise, Fodness ( 1994 ) relates motive to needs-satisfying. He summarizes that the basic motivational procedure is as follows: “ Internal psychological factors ( demands ) produce a unsmooth degree of anxiousness inside persons ‘ heads and organic structures. From a practical point of position, these personal demands and the ensuing anxiousness Swift attitudes and actions based on those attitudes considered to dispatch tenseness, therefore delighting the demands ” ( Fodness, 1994:558 ) . Consequently, persons seek to possess touchable and intangible “ objects ” because these objects serve psychological demands ( Fodness, 1994 ) .

Subsequently, Mill and Morrison ( 1998 ) postulate that motive occurs when an person wants to fulfill a demand. It is by and large agreed that motive means a province of demand or a status that drives an single toward certain types of action that are seen as likely to convey satisfaction ( Moutinho, 2000 ) . In add-on to psychological dimension, Weber ( 1968: 18 ) defines motive as “ a composite of subjective significance which seems to the histrion himself and to the perceiver an equal land for the behavior in inquiry ” , harmonizing to which empathetic apprehension is possible by a procedure of abstracting the kernel of societal action. Thus account is based on motive. Schutz ( 1972 ) agrees with Weber ( 1968 ) and proposes that the significance of an action is merely understood after one has experienced if, either temporally or else by projecting or fantasizing it into the hereafter perfect tense. In the former instance people have what he calls a “ because-of ” motivation which explains in mention to past experience, while in the latter one an “ in-order-to ” motivation which strikes people as meaningful.

Furthermore, Gnoth ( 1997 ) attaches motivations with personal features. A personal feature constitutes itself by the person ‘s ability to do different stimulations functionally tantamount and to present consistent tantamount signifiers of action and look and pull strings their classs ( Allport, 1937 ) . So one and the same motivation can bring forth situationally different behaviour, whereas different motivations can give rise to reasonably similar behaviour ( Murray, 1938 ) . Gnoth ( 1997 ) argues that motivations and personal features determine a individual ‘s temperament. The single temperaments are so grounds for behaviour in given state of affairss ( Cattell, 1957 ; Lewin, 1942 ) .

To recapitulate, motivations and motives are derived from interior forces, outer ends and incentives up to particular features. They are the issues sing people ‘s demands and attitudes, and are invariably linked to the hereafter fulfilment brought approximately by certain behaviours, and to the accounts of certain behaviours as good.

2.7 Tourist motives

On the statement of the above cardinal theories of motivations and motives, tourist/traveler motives have been developed for legion decennaries. As was mentioned above, elucidation is viewed to establish on motive. A perusing of the literature reveals that tourer motive theory contributes to explanation why people travel ( Lundberg, 1972 ; Dann, 1977 ; Crompton, 1979 ; Pearce and Caltabiano, 1983 ; Yuan and McDonald, 1990 ) .

Harmonizing to Fodness ( 1994 ) most research workers who attempt to specify tourer motive typically develop a list of the grounds for travel. However, Dann ( 1981 ) disagrees with that and argues a motivation is distinguishable from a ground, citing Brown ‘s ( 1963 ) point of view. In Dann ‘s sentiment, a ground is a subset of motive, a type of motor wherein necessary and logical agencies are taken to convey about a coveted terminal. Even if the grounds specified for travel and the advantages required from the travel experience may typify schemes for garnering personality ends and single demands, it does non mean that they correspond to the cardinal travel motives ( Dann, 1981 ; Pearce and Caltabiano, 1983 ) . For ( ex ) , several individuals who travel to rest and relaxation affirm that they do so in order to interrupt out the usual lives, while others going to rest and loosen up are clearly honoring themselves by maximising their enjoyment ( Fodness, 1994 ) .

However, although the grounds that people give for their travel behaviors do non be the basic tourer motives, they stand for some psychological maps ( the demands ) the travel serves ( satisfies ) for the person ( Fodness, 1997 ) . Therefore, it is still valuable to reexamine the list of the grounds for travel developed by research workers.

Gray ( 1970 ) references “ sunlust ” and “ itchy feet ” attempt to explicate the grounds for travel. “ Sunlust ” characterises holidaies which are motivated by the wish to see diverse or better installations for a peculiar intent that are accessible in the environment in which one by and large lives. “ Wanderlust ” , which is an alternate entreaty to “ sunlust ” , is defined as the basic trait in human life that causes several persons to desire to go forth things with which they are familiar and to go forth, and topographic point at first manus particular bing civilizations and topographic points, or the relics of past civilizations in topographic points that are well-known for the ruins, historical associations and memorial.

The survey by Dann ( 1977 ) who uses study informations on visitants ‘ attitudes toward Barbados identifies two basic motives: anomy and ego-enhancement. Underliing the anomie hypothesis, Dann ( 1977 ) supposes that adult male has the demand for desire and love to match with the fellow adult male. Therefore there is a wish to exceed feeling of solitariness obtained in mundane life, and this privation for societal dealingss can merely be satisfied by the individual acquiring off from in all on holiday. Ego-enhancement is believed to deduce from the demand for acknowledgment, which may be attained through the position conferred by travel ( Crompton, 1979a ) . Dann ( 1977 ) besides puts frontward the constructs of “ push ” and “ pull ” factors, around which most treatment of tourer motive have tended to go around. “ Push ” factors refer to the tourer as capable and trade with those factors predisposing him or her to go ( Dann, 1977 ) . In other words, the push factors for a vacation are socio-psychological motivations that have been considered helpful for clear uping the desire to travel for a holiday. Conversely, “ pull ” factors are those that attract the tourer to a given resort ( Dann, 1977 ) , that is the motivations is arouse by the finish instead than lifting entirely from within the tourer himself or herself, which have been regarded meaningful for explicating the pick of finish ( Crompton, 1979a ) .

Therefore, anomie and ego-enhancement, both of which emerge from within the tourers themselves, are regarded as socio-psychological factors, that is, push factors ( Dann, 1977 ) .

Systematically it is the push factors that precede the pull factors. In an effort to gestate motivations of pleasance holiday travelers, Crompton ( 1979a ) suggests nine motivations based on his survey: seven as socio-psychological or push motivations and two as cultural and pull motivations. The push motivations are escape from an evident everyday milieus ; find and appraisal of ego ; relaxation ; position ; arrested development ; enrichment of dealingss ; and facilitation of social contact. The two cultural motivations are: freshness and instruction.

2.8 Definition of Push Factors

The “ push ” factor are those aspect that push an person from abode and do him/her illusion to go someplace else that is the push factor involves a strength which acts to drive people off from a topographic point to another.

Socio-psychological motivations ( as one of drivers ) are the intrinsic motives that push one to go. Different research workers have different hypotheses as to what these motivations could be. Kotler ( 1982 ) , for case, provinces that motives can be the consequence of internal and external stimulations. Internal stimuli arise from personal demands that can be physiological, societal, egoistic, safety and self-actualization. This theory joins Maslow ‘s Hierarchy of Needs which implies that there are five degrees of human motive, viz. Physiological demands, Safety, Belonging, Esteem or Respect and Self-actualization. Crompton ( 1979 ) identified nine motivations for travel: seven of which were socio-psychological or push motivations and two cultural pull motivations being freshness and instruction. Awaritefe ( 2004 ) classified the push motives as foreign and has besides found that the elements that push people to go are, categorized as Cultural/Education needs, Education, Need for environment alteration, Self-actualization and Belonging/love. In add-on to the above Awaritefe besides showed that what motivates people in their pick of a finish is self-improvement in an appreciative cultural or educational context and Leisure/recreational chases. Therefore, push factors are factors that can make one desire to go in order to delight one ‘s demands.

2.8.1 Definition of Pull factors

So as to pull tourers to a finish, sellers need to find why tourers decide to go and why they choose a peculiar finish as motive driver behaviour ( Gnoth, 1997 p.283-304 ) . Together with the push factors, the pull factors need a peculiar attending. Pull factors are the finish attributes that service as attractive force for the tourer and this plays an of import function in finish pick ( Crompton, 1979 p.408-424 ; Awaritefe, 2004 p.303-330 ) . In the push-pull construction the pull factors refer to the external forces that persuade a individual ‘s penchant of finish. Pull factors refer to Man-made attractive forces ( e.g. , substructure and superstructure ) , Natural attractive forces, Historical sites, Beaches, Climate ( Sirakaya, 1992 p. ) . Awaritefe ( 2004 ) classified pull motivations as the Domestic with accent on favourable Location, Facilities/Amenities, and Access to center, Cost satisfaction, Quality services and good Accommodation. However Awaritefe ‘s model does non include certain factors such as Climate, Historical sites, among others, contrary to Baloglu and Uysal ( 1996 ) . In add-on to the above, You et al ( 2000 ) proposed that sellers should acknowledge the differences among states as a footing for planing effectual selling plans.

To sum up, push-pull theory has been acknowledged as a utile model for analyzing the diverse forces that influence or force a individual to see taking a holiday and, given that the pick, the forces that attract or pull that individual to take a peculiar holiday finish. Although these two forces appear to be separate, a turning organic structure of research suggests that the two determinations are non needfully made independently during the holiday planning procedure ( californium. Crompton 1979 ) . Prior empirical research analyzing the interrelatedness between push and pull factors has focused on the usage of multivariate techniques and large-scale study informations sets ( Baloglu and Uysal 1996 ; Oh, Uysal, and Weaver 1995 ; Pyo, Mihalik, and Uysal 1989 ; Uysal and Jurowski 1994 ) . While critical to developing our apprehension in this country, this research attack speaks chiefly to the issue of whether peculiar push and pull factors are associated. The aim of the existent research is to look at the utility of an alternate research attack, one based on means-end theory, intended to supply a richer, deeper degree of apprehension of these interrelatednesss.

2.8.2 Pull factors act uponing a finish

The pull factors act as a promotional tool in pulling tourer to a peculiar finish. The pull factors are explained as follows ( Weaver & A ; Oppermann, 2000 ) :

Geographic propinquity to markets

The more a finish is distant from its markets the higher will be the transit disbursals and drawn-out ocean trip clip. In the instance of Mauritius, the fact that the island is 10-12 hours far from Europe, this represents a serious disadvantage for the finish ( Mauritius ) .

Handiness to the markets

Handiness can be classified into infrastructural and political. Infrastructural handiness refers to those comfortss accessible at an appraisal for case diverse manner of conveyance. Political handiness refers to the state of affairs under which visitants are permitted to come in a finish.

Handiness of attractive forces

By and large, attractive forces are governed by manner and societal exchange, that is, for a finish to pull off the arriving tourer flow will often be capable to demand side factors beyond the control of the finish.

Cultural links

Harmonizing to Burton ( 1995 ) , travel is normally more likely to happen between states that portion similar elements of civilization, such as linguistic communication and faith. The inclinations of finishs to pull culturally related markets encourage dropping the insecurity and incommodiousnesss encountered when covering with foreign linguistic communications and spiritual norms. These sorts of tourists/travelers facilitate to cut down negative impacts that may hold generated from cultural differences therefore executing as an of import selling tool.

Handiness of services

Tourists will probably avoid finishs where the necessary services are non available or even if the services are non to the anticipated quality degrees. The cardinal services can be classified as simple and comfy transit, adjustment, nutrient and drinks comfortss and leisure and recreational services.


The cost of life at a peculiar finish plays a really of import function in pulling tourers. Harmonizing to Weaver & A ; Oppermann ( 2000 ) , many travellers from flush states are attracted to finish with high disbursement power for them gained from the low cost of goods and services at the finish.

Peace and stableness

The tourer markets are sensitive to political and societal solidness as given to one of the features of services of the touristry industry where 1 has to be present at the finish for the use of the service. To back up the statement Mansfield ( 1994 ) stated that it is non surprising to see ceaseless diminutions in tourers reachings in finishs during political tensenesss and warfare periods for illustration in the instance of Middle-east.

Positive finish image

Image is of great importance for tourist/traveler for sing a peculiar finish peculiarly for first clip visitants. Harmonizing to Ahmed ( 1996 ) , tourers perceive many images of their finish and those images influence their attitude and behavior. Besides, Goodrich ( 1978 ) affirmed that travellers are likely to take finish with the most favourable image. For that ground, the image of a finish will positively lend to a large extent in the pick procedure for taking a peculiar finish.

2.8.3 Empirical surveies on motivational issues of international travelers

The foregoing research findings have paved the manner for progress surveies that deal with planetary tourer motive. Yuan and McDonald ( 1990 ) analyze the cross-cultural motives for outbound travel utilizing push and pull factors and conclude that people from each of the four states ( Japan, France, West Germany, and the U.K. ) travel to fulfill the same unmet demands ( push factors ) , whereas attractive forces for taking a peculiar finish ( pull factors ) appear to differ among the four beginning states. They besides discover that the degree of significance that persons put together to the assorted factors vary from state to state.

Subsequently Jamrozy and Uysal ( 1994 ) examine the fluctuation of motivational push and pull factors harmonizing to five different types of travel groups of German travelers. Their research consequence shows that abroad travelers from Germany, to a great extent, displayed fluctuations in push motives while going entirely and in friendly relationship groups, as opposed to households, twosomes and tour groups.

Cha et Al. ( 1995 ) endeavours to sketch the push motives of Nipponese travelers who travelled overseas for pleasance. Their survey discloses six motive factors: relax, cognition, escapade, travel crow, household, and athleticss ; and verifies three motivation-base market sections: athleticss searchers, freshness searchers and family/relaxation searchers, utilizing bunch analysis.

In an effort to bring out the implicit in push and pull factors of motive associated with the British outbound pleasance travelers, Jang and Cai ‘s ( 2002 ) survey reveals six implicit in push factors ( Novelty Experience, Escape, Knowledge Seeking, Fun and Excitement, Rest and Relaxation, Family/Friend Togetherness ) and five implicit in pull factors ( Natural and Historic Environment, Cleanliness and Safety, Easy-to-Access and Economic Deal, Outdoor Activities, Sunny and Exotic Atmosphere ) , among which “ Knowledge seeking ” is the most of import factor to actuate the British traveling overseas and “ cleanliness and safety ” is considered the most important that draws the British travellers to an abroad finish.

Klenosky ( 2002:387 ) reviews the old surveies on analyzing push and pull factors and provides a drumhead tabular array ( Table 2.1 ) :

Previous empirical surveies analyzing push and pull factors

( Beginning: Klenosky, D.B. , 2002, The “ Pull ” of Tourism Destinations: A Means-End Investigation, Journal of Travel Research, Vol. 40, May, pp385-395 )

2.9 A finish

A finish can be described as a part or topographic point with a distinguishable image that has natural attractive forces such as clime, hydrology, topography, installations ( Weaver and Lawton 2006 ) . Knowing on a finish is indispensable while a tourer chooses a topographic point for holiday. Finish stakeholders include hotels, eating houses, circuit operators, authorities organic structures, attractive forces, gas Stationss, retail mercantile establishments, metropolis functionaries, transit companies, incentive contrivers, air hoses, and/or universities ( Blain, Levy, and Ritchie 2005 ) . While the DMO is responsible for marketing a finish, it is seldom an operator of the merchandise and is therefore reliant on stakeholder support to successfully advance and market a finish ( Pike 2004 ) . If one of the cardinal stakeholders ( e.g. , a transit company ) withdraws its support for the selling of the finish, the finish may be threatened as a common attack is non being used ( Clarkson 1995 ) .


Echtner and Ritchie ( 1991 ) place that the definition of the finish image is obscure, uncomplete, or missing in the literature, which led them to reason that it is non clear what constituent of image is measured in some surveies. They recognize that in most surveies, image is conceptualized in footings of cognitive component-that is, lists of finish properties. Mentioning to the root subjects of image construct, they conclude that mensurating image merely by attribute lists would non capture the multidimensionality of the image construct, and they recommend that image be conceptualized as holding constituents of three continua: attribute/holistic, functional/psychological, and common/unique. Therefore, they define image as:

the perceptual experiences of single finish properties. . . [ and ] the holistic feeling made by the finish. [ It ] . . . consists of functional features, refering the more touchable facets of the finish, and psychological features, refering the more intangible facets. Furthermore, [ it ] . . . can be arranged on a continuum runing from traits which can be normally used to compare all finishs to those which are alone to really few finishs. ( Echtner & A ; Ritchie, 1991, p. 8 )

A significant measure of finish image surveies have been conducted since Echtner and Ritchie ‘s reappraisal, and research workers have proposed diverse definitions for the indistinguishable concept ( i.e. , the finish image ) . In so making, a few have introduced diverse facets of image and have developed a more inclusive concept. Baloglu and Brinberg ( 1997 ) , for illustration, borrow a general definition from some writers: “ Image is the amount of beliefs, thoughts, and feelings that people have of a topographic point or finish ” ( p. 11 ) . They besides adapt its emotional, damaging, and imaginational facets from others. In a similar mode, Dann ( 1996 ) uses Gensch ‘s ( 1978 ) image specification of “ an abstract construct integrating the influences of past publicity, repute and peer rating of options, ” and he besides incorporates sociopsychological facets from other bookmans with which image becomes a dynamic and subjective “ contemplation or representation of sensory or conceptual information. . . built on past experience and govern [ ing ] 1 ‘s action. . . frequently shared by similar people who besides form portion of that image ” ( Dann, 1996, p. 42 ) .

Some research workers use perceptual experience nomenclature such as image perceptual experience, perceived image, and tourer image, which call for elucidation between the constructs of image and perceptual experience. Fridgen ( 1987 ) defines image as “ a mental representation of an object, individual, topographic point, or event which is non physically both of which are portion of environmental apprehension and comprehension, by before the perceiver ” ( p. 102 ) . He differentiates between image and perceptual experience, observing the being of environmental stimulations for justification of perceptual experience, whereas no such stimulations for image subsist. This means image might or might non consist perceptual experience ; therefore, the usage of tourers ‘ perceptual experience of an image is in theory an unequal combination for the instances in which possible tourers have non yet experienced perceptual experience through images or trial. Sussmann and Unel ( 1999 ) object to the usage of both perceptual experience and attitude as replacements for image despite the similarities between them ; they postulate that

“ They are quite different: images are the consequence of composite perceptual experiences which are, in bend, dictated by attitudes to ensue in a positive or negative image ” ( p. 211 ) .

A comparable denseness exists in the application of “ tourist image ” . Bramwell and Rawding ‘s ( 1996 ) definition might clear up the struggle by distinguishing between projected and received image: “ Projected images are the thoughts and feelings of a topographic point that are available for people ‘s consideration ” ( p. 202 ) . They purport that those images are transmitted or diffused through communicating channels to the consumers who filter these image messages through their subjective provinces such as personalities, anterior experiences, cognition, demands, penchants, and motives, thereby changing and organizing them into “ their ain alone representations or mental concepts ” ( Bramwell & A ; Rawding, 1996, p. 202 ) . Similar image formation process-related definitions are provided by others ( Court & A ; Lupton, 1997 ; Fakeye & A ; Crompton, 1991 ; MacKay & A ; Fesenmaier, 1997 ) .


Harmonizing to the foregoing reviewed literature, motivations and motives are issues related to people ‘s demands and attitudes, ever accompanied by the future satisfaction and by account. More specifically, tourer / travel motive concerns the reply to the inquiry “ Why people go going? ” thereby regarded as the account or forecaster of tourer behaviours in touristry context. An amalgam of thoughts and attacks on tourer / travel motive has been developed, among which the push-pull model is considered as a simple but intuitive attack for explicating the tourer motive In conformity with the push-pull model, people travel because they are pushed by their ain internal psychological demands and at the same time pulled by the external finish properties. In add-on, finish image may act upon tourer motive as pull factors as it bases upon thoughts, beliefs and feelings that a prospective tourer holds about a finish. Furthermore, the single features cultivated by different demographic and cultural background besides influence tourer motive as they contribute to the process of the attending, organisation and reading of the information.